Life Cycle Assessment of Floating Solar FPV Systems: Environmental Impacts and Sustainability


Floating solar photovoltaic (FPV) systems have gained significant attention as a sustainable solution for renewable energy generation. As the world transitions towards cleaner energy sources, it becomes crucial to assess the environmental impacts and sustainability of floating solar FPV systems throughout their life cycle. This article aims to conduct a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of floating solar FPV systems, considering their environmental impacts and long-term sustainability.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology

    Life cycle assessment is a holistic approach that evaluates the environmental impact of a product or system throughout its entire life cycle, from raw material extraction to disposal. The LCA methodology provides a quantitative analysis of various environmental indicators, including greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, water usage, and waste generation.

    To conduct an LCA of floating solar FPV systems, the life cycle stages considered include raw material extraction, module manufacturing, floating platform production, transportation, installation, operation, and end-of-life disposal or recycling. Primary data from industry reports, academic studies, and manufacturers’ specifications are used to quantify the environmental impacts at each stage.

  2. Environmental Impacts of Floating Solar FPV Systems

    The LCA of floating solar FPV systems reveals several key environmental impacts. Firstly, the manufacturing and disposal of photovoltaic modules contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and waste generation. However, advancements in module manufacturing techniques and the recycling of end-of-life modules can significantly reduce these impacts.

    Secondly, the production of floating platforms involves the extraction of raw materials, energy consumption, and potential habitat disturbance during manufacturing processes. The choice of materials and manufacturing methods can influence the overall environmental performance of floating platforms. Opting for sustainable materials, such as recycled plastics, can minimize environmental impacts.

    Thirdly, the transportation and installation stages involve energy consumption, emissions from transportation vehicles, and potential habitat disturbance during installation in water bodies. Minimizing transportation distances and employing eco-friendly installation techniques can help reduce the environmental footprint of these stages.

  3. Sustainability Considerations and Mitigation Strategies

    To ensure the long-term sustainability of floating solar FPV systems, several considerations and mitigation strategies should be implemented. Firstly, the use of renewable energy sources in module manufacturing and floating platform production can reduce the reliance on fossil fuels, further minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting a sustainable energy transition.

    Secondly, optimizing the recycling and disposal of end-of-life modules is crucial. The development of efficient recycling technologies and the establishment of take-back programs can reduce waste generation and recover valuable materials for reuse, promoting a circular economy approach.

    Thirdly, careful site selection and environmental impact assessments are vital to minimize potential habitat disturbance and ensure the protection of aquatic ecosystems. Engaging with local communities, stakeholders, and regulatory authorities during the planning and decision-making process can lead to more sustainable and socially acceptable project implementations.


The life cycle assessment of floating solar FPV systems provides valuable insights into their environmental impacts and long-term sustainability. By identifying the key stages and factors influencing environmental performance, mitigation strategies can be developed to minimize these impacts.

To ensure a sustainable future, continuous research and innovation are needed to improve module manufacturing processes, promote the use of sustainable materials, and enhance end-of-life recycling techniques. Additionally, collaborations between industry, academia, and policymakers are essential to develop guidelines and regulations that encourage the adoption of environmentally friendly practices throughout the life cycle of floating solar FPV systems.

By adopting a life cycle perspective and implementing sustainable strategies, floating solar FPV systems can contribute significantly to the global transition to clean and renewable energy sources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, minimizing environmental impacts, and promoting a more sustainable and resilient energy future.

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