Floating Solar FPV in Coastal and Offshore Environments: Design Considerations and Performance Evaluation


Floating solar photovoltaic (FPV) systems have gained increasing attention as a viable renewable energy solution. While they have been predominantly deployed in inland water bodies, there is growing interest in exploring their potential in coastal and offshore environments. This article explores the design considerations and performance evaluation of floating solar FPV systems in these unique settings, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities they present.

  1. Design Considerations for Coastal and Offshore Environments

    a. Wave and Tide Effects : Coastal and offshore environments are subject to higher wave heights and tidal currents compared to inland water bodies. Floating solar FPV systems must be designed to withstand these dynamic conditions, requiring robust anchoring mechanisms, flexible structures, and appropriate buoyancy control.

    b. Saltwater Corrosion : Exposure to saltwater poses a significant challenge for system components. The selection of corrosion-resistant materials and protective coatings becomes crucial to ensure the longevity and performance of floating solar FPV systems in coastal and offshore environments.

    c. Seabed Conditions : Understanding the seabed conditions, including the composition and stability, is essential for the design and installation of floating solar FPV systems. Proper foundation design, such as pile or gravity-based structures, is necessary to provide stability and prevent system movement.

  2. Performance Evaluation in Coastal and Offshore Environments

    a. Energy Yield : Coastal and offshore environments often offer higher solar irradiation levels compared to inland areas. However, the impact of factors such as wind, waves, and cloud cover on energy yield needs to be carefully evaluated. Accurate resource assessment and modeling techniques are essential to predict energy production and optimize system performance.

    b. Water Depth : Coastal and offshore environments can have varying water depths, ranging from shallow coastal regions to deep offshore waters. Floating solar FPV systems must be designed to accommodate these depth variations, considering the appropriate anchoring and mooring systems to ensure stability and performance.

    c. Environmental Conditions : Coastal and offshore environments are home to diverse marine ecosystems. Understanding and mitigating the potential environmental impacts of floating solar FPV systems, such as shading effects, alteration of light penetration, and disturbance to marine life, is crucial. Research is ongoing to assess these impacts and develop best practices for minimizing ecological disturbances.

  3. Advantages and Opportunities

    a. Increased Energy Generation : Coastal and offshore environments offer the advantage of higher wind speeds, which can enhance the cooling effect on solar panels, leading to increased energy generation. Additionally, the availability of larger water bodies allows for the installation of larger-scale floating solar FPV systems, resulting in higher overall energy production.

    b. Space Optimization : Coastal and offshore areas often face land scarcity and competing land uses. Floating solar FPV systems provide a viable solution to optimize the use of available water surfaces, freeing up valuable land for other purposes.

    c. Offshore Grid Connections : Offshore floating solar FPV systems can be strategically located near existing offshore wind farms or transmission infrastructure, facilitating the integration of renewable energy sources into the grid. This synergy can enhance overall grid stability and promote the growth of offshore renewable energy.


Floating solar FPV systems in coastal and offshore environments present unique design considerations and performance evaluation requirements. Overcoming challenges related to wave and tide effects, saltwater corrosion, and seabed conditions is essential for successful implementation. The higher solar irradiation levels, increased energy generation potential, and space optimization advantages make coastal and offshore areas attractive for floating solar FPV deployment. However, careful assessment of environmental impacts and adherence to sustainable practices are crucial to ensure the long-term viability and ecological compatibility of these systems. Continued research, innovation, and collaboration among academia, industry, and policymakers are necessary to unlock the full potential of floating solar FPV in coastal and offshore environments and contribute to a sustainable energy future.

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