Evaluating the Performance of Floating Solar FPV Systems in Different Climate Conditions


Floating solar photovoltaic (FPV) systems have gained popularity as a sustainable solution for renewable energy generation. As these systems continue to be deployed across diverse climates, it becomes crucial to evaluate their performance under different environmental conditions. This article examines the performance of floating solar FPV systems in various climate conditions and highlights the factors that influence their efficiency, productivity, and reliability.

  1. Solar Irradiation and Temperature Effects

    Solar irradiation and temperature are two critical factors that significantly impact the performance of floating solar FPV systems. Solar irradiation levels vary depending on the geographical location, season, and time of day. Systems located in regions with higher solar irradiation typically exhibit higher energy yields. However, temperature plays a dual role, as increased panel temperatures can lead to a decrease in module efficiency. It is essential to understand the interplay between solar irradiation, temperature, and system performance to optimize energy generation and make accurate energy yield predictions.

  2. Wind and Wave Effects

    In addition to solar irradiation and temperature, wind and wave conditions also influence the performance of floating solar FPV systems. High wind speeds can affect the stability of the floating structures and result in increased stresses on the system. Similarly, wave action can cause oscillations and impact the positioning and alignment of the solar panels. Understanding the local wind and wave patterns is crucial for designing robust floating structures that can withstand varying conditions and ensure optimal system performance.

  3. Rainfall and Humidity Considerations

    Rainfall and humidity levels are important factors to consider when evaluating the performance of floating solar FPV systems. Rainfall can affect the cleanliness of the solar panels, potentially reducing their efficiency. However, it can also have a positive effect by cleaning dust and debris from the panels, resulting in improved performance. High humidity levels can contribute to moisture ingress, affecting the long-term durability and electrical safety of the system. Proper maintenance practices and monitoring are essential to mitigate any negative effects of rainfall and humidity on system performance.

  4. Snow and Ice Effects

    In regions with cold climates, snow and ice accumulation on the solar panels can pose challenges for floating solar FPV systems. Snow cover reduces the amount of solar irradiation reaching the panels, leading to decreased energy production. Furthermore, ice formation can damage the panels and impact their efficiency. Innovative design features, such as tilt angles or heating systems, can help mitigate the effects of snow and ice, ensuring continuous energy generation during winter months.

  5. Lessons Learned and Adaptation Strategies

    Field data and performance evaluations in different climate conditions have provided valuable insights and lessons learned for optimizing the performance of floating solar FPV systems. These include the importance of site-specific design considerations, accurate resource assessment, advanced modeling techniques, and suitable technology selection. Furthermore, adaptive management strategies, such as real-time monitoring, predictive analytics, and operational adjustments, can enhance system performance and ensure maximum energy yield.


Evaluating the performance of floating solar FPV systems in different climate conditions is crucial for optimizing their efficiency and productivity. Factors such as solar irradiation, temperature, wind, waves, rainfall, humidity, snow, and ice all influence the performance of these systems. By understanding these factors and implementing appropriate design features and maintenance practices, floating solar FPV systems can adapt to various climate conditions and maximize energy generation. Continued research, data collection, and technological advancements will further enhance the performance and resilience of floating solar FPV systems, contributing to the global transition to clean and sustainable energy sources.

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