A Comparative Study of Land-Based and Floating Solar PV Systems: Environmental Perspectives


As the global demand for renewable energy continues to grow, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have emerged as a prominent solution. Traditional land-based solar installations have been widely adopted, but recently, floating solar PV (FPV) systems have gained attention due to their unique advantages. This article presents a comparative study of land-based and floating solar PV systems from an environmental perspective, exploring their respective benefits and challenges.

  1. Land Use and Ecosystem Impact

    Land-based solar PV systems require significant land area for installation, often resulting in habitat fragmentation and loss of biodiversity. In contrast, floating solar PV systems utilize water surfaces, such as reservoirs, lakes, and ponds, without requiring additional land use. This characteristic makes floating solar systems more environmentally friendly, as they minimize ecosystem disruption and preserve terrestrial habitats.

  2. Water Conservation and Evaporation Reduction

    Floating solar PV systems offer an additional environmental advantage by reducing water evaporation from covered water bodies. The panels act as shades, preventing direct sunlight from reaching the water surface, which reduces evaporation rates. In contrast, land-based solar installations do not provide this water conservation benefit. This feature is particularly valuable in water-stressed regions, where water scarcity is a critical concern.

  3. Cooling Effect and Energy Efficiency

    Floating solar PV systems benefit from the natural cooling effect of water, which improves the efficiency and performance of the panels. The cooler operating temperatures reduce energy losses and enhance overall energy conversion efficiency. In contrast, land-based solar systems are subject to higher operating temperatures, which can decrease efficiency. The energy efficiency advantage of floating solar PV systems contributes to a lower carbon footprint and reduced environmental impact.

  4. Algae Growth Prevention and Water Quality

    The shading effect of floating solar panels inhibits the growth of algae in covered water bodies. Algae blooms can deplete oxygen levels, harm aquatic ecosystems, and degrade water quality. By reducing algae growth, floating solar PV systems help maintain a healthy and balanced aquatic environment. In contrast, land-based solar installations do not provide this specific water quality benefit.

  5. Synergies with Hydropower and Multi-Use Opportunities

    Floating solar PV systems can be integrated with hydropower infrastructure, leveraging the existing water reservoirs. This integration creates synergistic benefits, where the shading effect of the floating solar panels reduces water evaporation from the reservoir, optimizing water availability for hydropower generation. Additionally, floating solar systems can be combined with other water-based activities such as aquaculture, water treatment, and recreational activities. This multi-use potential maximizes the utilization of water resources and enhances the environmental and economic value of floating solar PV systems.


In a comparative study of land-based and floating solar PV systems from an environmental perspective, floating solar emerges as an attractive alternative that offers several environmental benefits. By minimizing land use, conserving water resources, reducing evaporation rates, preventing algae growth, and providing multi-use opportunities, floating solar PV systems demonstrate a more sustainable approach to solar energy generation. However, it is essential to consider site-specific factors, such as water depth, environmental impacts, and regulatory requirements when evaluating the feasibility and suitability of floating solar PV systems. Continued research, technological advancements, and supportive policies are key to further optimizing floating solar PV systems and harnessing their full potential for a cleaner and greener future.

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